WARD WARREN, Gretchen (1998) Classical Ballet Technique. China, University Press Florida




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"Classical Ballet Technique is an invaluable guide for students, teachers, and ballet lovers. It not only covers the broad spectrum of ballet vocabulary but also gives sound, practical advice to aspiring dancers. The clarity of the writing, in a field notorious for its opaqueness, is in itself a major achievement" 
Merrill Ashley, Principal Dancer, New York City  Ballet



CONTENTS

FOREWORD
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
INTRODUCTION

PART 1. THEORY AND TRADITION

Chapter 1. Basic Concepts 5

Correct Stance
The correct way to hold the barre
Turn-out 
Footwear for ballet class
The positions of the feet
Te use of the  foot
The positions sur le cou-de-pied
Trajectory of the leg opening and closing from 5th position
Weight distribution
Degree of pelvic tilt in extensions
Placement of the torso in grand rond de jambe
Facial expressions
The positions of the head
Épaulement 
The positions of the arms
The classical   position of the hand
The arm in motion
The concepts of en dehors and en dedans
The use of the arms in turns
The use of the head in turns
Positions of the head at the barre
The nine directions of the body
Port de bras variations with the directions of the body
The fixed points of the stage or studio
Arabesque
Bends of the body
Running and walking in the classical ballet style


CHAPTER 2. The Ideal Body Structure and proportions for Classical Ballet Dancers

The ideal female dancer's body
The ideal male dancer's body
common variations in body types
Common variations in types of feet

CHAPTER 3. The Ballet Class: Notes for Teachers 71

The rationale behind the ritual
The role of the teacher
Demonstrating exercises effectively
Finding the right words in class
French ballet terms
Musicality 
 The content of the class: developing effective exercises
Class structure: order of the exercises 
Relationship of barre exercises to centre and allegro movements
The study of allegro
The se t barr vs. the varied barre.
The allotment of class time
The importance of relevé  work
Developing a theme for each class
Point work
Utilizing material from various syllabi
New approaches
The successful student

PART II. ATHE MOVEMENTS   OF CLASSICAL BALLET

Chapter 4. Exercises at the Barre

Pié
Battement tenu
Battement dégagé
Moments to combine with m de jambe par terre excersises at  the barre
Battement fondu
Batteent soutecu
Fond de jambe en l'air
Battement frappé
Flic-flac and temps relev'e
Développé and relevé lent
Petit battemement
Grand Battement

Chapter 5. Turns at the Barre
Turns on two legs
Turns on one leg

Chapter 6.Traditional transfer-of-weight Movements
temps lié
Pas de basque a terre 

Chapter 7. The Method for turning Centre Barre And Petit Allegro steps
centre barre exercisess en tournant
Petit allego steps en touman


Chapter 8. The traditional Turns of Classical Ballet
Piroutte
Piqué turns
Tous chaines
Glissade en tournant

Chapter 9. Turning Movements Used in Adagio
Grand fouetté 
Revenrsé

Chapter 10. Linking Steps
Pas de bourrée 
Glissade
Failli
Balancé
linking steps from the Bournonville


CHAPER 11: ALLEGRO 242.

Beginner
Intermediate
Intermediate-advanced
Advanced
Temps levé
Changement de pieds
Échappe sauté
Temps le´ves on one leg
Italian changement
Passé sauté
Soubresaut
Emboité
Assemblé
Jeté
Grand Jeté
Ballonné
Sissonne
Compound steps containing
Ballotté
Rond de jambe en l'air sauté
pas de chat
Grand as de basque sauté (soviet syllabus)
Gargouillade
Pas de poisson
Pas failli
Pas de ciseaux
Temps de fleche
Grand battement sauté passé développé
Grand battement sauté enveloppé-développé


Chapter 12: Turning Steps en L'Air 301

Assemblé en tournat
Chassé en tournant
Emboités sautés by half-turn
Sissonne en tournant
Saut de basque
Demi-caractere double saut e basque with legs bent (for men only)
Grand jeté entrelacé
Grand fouetté sauté
Grand jeté en tournant revoltade
Temps lié sauté en tournant (soviet syllabus)
Men's tours en l'air

Chapter 13. BATTERIE 320

Beaten jumps
Entrechat quatre
Royale
Entrechat trois
Petit battement battu sauté
Entrechat cinq
Entrechat six
Échappé battu
Assemblé batti
Pas de basque battu (cecchetti method)
Ballonné battu
Jeté battu 
Brisé
Sissonne battue 
Grand assemblé entrechat six de volée
Grand fouetté battu en tournant
Grand jeté entrelacé battu
Cabriole

Chapter 14. POINTE WORK
Relevés from both feet
Relevés from one foot
Bourrées
Piqué 
Demi-caractère steps
Jumps en pointe
Turning en manège
Emboité sur les pointes

Chapter 15. Révérence
Standard Women's révérence 
Standard men's révérence

A FINAL NOTE: CLASSROOM ETIQUETTE
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
GLOSSARY
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
THE MODELS
INDEX










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